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  • The demand drop mystery explained | Business Spectator
    the expense of coal fired generators Many are now barely profitable Greenhouse gas emissions fell by 9 2 Mt CO2 e roughly 2 per cent of Australia s total emissions in 2012 alone Until less than two years ago official expectations were for rapid demand growth to resume in the NEM Source Hugh Saddler To be precise what the above figures are measuring is not electricity used by final consumers but electricity supplied to the national grid system by large generators which participate in the wholesale National Electricity Market It is very difficult to find consolidated data on the quantities of electricity supplied by small distributed generators such as rooftop photovoltaics and landfill gas plants But the Australian Energy Market Operator has estimated that in 2012 13 photovoltaics supplied 2 7 TWh and other small generators supplied 3 1 TWh So although important and growing these sources alone do not account for the whole of the 8 TWh reduction from the peak year let alone the 37 TWh reduction from the long term trend Changes in electricity generation in the NEM by fuel type Source Hugh Saddler Research we have recently completed concludes that the three largest factors contributing to the recent dramatic changes in demand for electricity are the impact of mainly regulatory energy efficiency programs structural change in the economy away from electricity intensive industries since 2010 the response of electricity consumers especially residential consumers to higher electricity prices Energy efficiency Australia s first mandatory regulatory energy efficiency measures were introduced in the late 1990s These were Mandatory Energy Performance Standards for refrigerators and freezers Since then these standards have been extended to a very wide range of residential and commercial appliances and equipment Analogous energy efficiency requirements have been applied to new buildings We have used data in reviews of the appliance and equipment measures and the building measures to estimate that the increased impact of these measures between 2006 and 2013 has in total reduced annual demand for electricity by 10 5 TWh or 28 per cent of the total 37 TWh reduction Smaller demand reductions have come from increased uptake of solar and heat pump water heaters supported by various government programs the Home Insulation Program the so called pink batts scheme and the Victorian and NSW retailer energy efficiency obligation schemes All of these schemes together contribute another 8 per cent of the reduction The effect of major energy efficiency policies and programs on electricity demand Source Hugh Saddler Industry restructure Between October 2011 and September 2012 three major industrial electricity users all in NSW the Port Kembla steelworks the Kurri Kurri aluminium smelter and the Clyde oil refinery were partially or totally shut down These closures removed approximately 3 6 TWh of annual electricity consumption from the NEM which is about 10 per cent of the 37 TWh reduction However detailed analysis of annual public reports of National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System shows that other than the companies linked to the above closures electricity consumption by the largest 100 electricity users in Australia over the three years from 2010 to 2012 was remarkably constant While there was negligible growth there was no decline There certainly wasn t a collapse of manufacturing This is consistent with sectoral value added data in the National Accounts That said the longer term structural shift in the economy away from manufacturing to services and mining has accelerated in recent years For several decades ending around 2006 Australia has had steady growth in output of primary metals and other electricity intensive commodities and this drove a steady increase in electricity consumption This growth ceased in 2006 This means that over and above the absolute decline caused by the closures lack of growth in output of electricity intensive commodities is contributing to lack of growth in demand for electricity amounting to about 14 per cent of the 37 TWh Declining manufacturing output overall is not in general causing an absolute fall in demand Consumers cutting back If all the above contributions to reduced electricity demand are added to actual demand starting in 2006 the result is a series of total annual numbers which can be thought of as total demand for electricity services This includes both actual electricity and services provided by using a given quantity of electricity more efficiently We found that demand defined and calculated in this way and also including the reductions from the major industry closures closely tracks the historical trend growth in electricity demand up to 2010 Since then however there has been a marked departure from trend Households have adjusted to higher prices by reducing their consumption Source Hugh Saddler From 2010 to 2013 a widening gap between the modelled demand for electricity services and the historical projected demand emerges This gap can be completely accounted for by introducing consumer response to higher electricity prices into the model This report finds that the price response explains 19 per cent of the shortfall in 2013 The most interesting finding of this part of the modelling is the abrupt change in consumer responsiveness to higher prices after 2010 It is surely not a coincidence that 2009 10 was the year in which the possible effect of a carbon price on electricity prices became a major national political issue It was also the year when increasing political attention was paid to the rapid increases in electricity prices already occurring mainly because of higher network costs Electricity prices remain a major preoccupation of political debate The hypothesis is that the political attention being paid to electricity prices led consumers to pay more attention than they had previously done to their expenditure on electricity Once they paid attention consumers responded by reducing their consumption to limit their spending The outcome showed up strongly in the total electricity demand figures from 2011 on There is powerful evidence to support this Looking at the recently published ABS Energy Account data we can see that real average annual household expenditure on

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/article/2014/1/6/energy-markets/demand-drop-mystery-explained (2014-01-13)
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  • Hugh Saddler | Business Spectator
    just manufacturing closures and bill shock with energy efficiency critical by Hugh Saddler 11 19am January 06 6 comments Grid emissions decline slows but petrol tapers In Cedex s latest report falling electricity network emissions are finally being complemented by a slowing in petroleum emissions growth by Hugh Saddler 11 29am December 04 Prices and PV kick in amid falling demand emissions The uptake of solar PV evident in the differences between residential and industrial business electricity demand in Queensland while prices hit gas generation in SA and Tasmania by Hugh Saddler 5 20pm November 06 Demand down 7 from peak emissions down 16 Cedex s latest report has found demand and emissions continue to fall in the National Electricity Market while South Australia is a state in energy flux by Hugh Saddler 11 22am October 04 2 comments A 14th month of falling emissions In Cedex s latest report falling electricity generation emissions are more than offsetting growth in emissions from petroleum fuels by Hugh Saddler 8 53am September 05 4 comments Electricity demand s in free fall but what happened to the peak The latest data on electricity demand found it falling again in June with solar PV playing a significant role Meanwhile the peaks in demand remain a long way from their highs by Hugh Saddler 8 14am August 08 2 comments The power demand slump continues The financial year 2013 numbers are in and electricity demand has slumped for the third straight year And the fall was the strongest yet with carbon emissions reducing significantly as a result by Hugh Saddler 12 02pm July 09 2 comments Power prices don t expect change The Labor government is a little late to the party when it comes to the cause of high power prices but at least it has spurred debate Now we must focus on re designing electricity market institutions to support both energy security and climate policy goals in an integrated way by Hugh Saddler 8 32am August 10 Electricity demand on the skids An ESAA report confirms residential energy consumption in Australia has flat lined despite reports to the contrary as Australia s growing economy becomes less electricity intensive by Hugh Saddler 9 39am July 26 Why residential electricity demand is not growing Martin Ferguson has made the government s first acknowledgement that the long era of increasing energy demand is coming to the end but in his speech he missed a key reason why by Hugh Saddler 8 39am June 28 The demand drop mystery explained For well over a century electricity demand has grown each and every year then in 2010 something changed Credit goes well beyond just manufacturing closures and bill shock with energy efficiency critical by Hugh Saddler 11 19am January 06 6 comments Grid emissions decline slows but petrol tapers In Cedex s latest report falling electricity network emissions are finally being complemented by a slowing in petroleum emissions growth by Hugh Saddler 11 29am December 04 Prices and

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/contributor/hugh-saddler (2014-01-13)
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  • Heatwave sends QLD prices soaring | Business Spectator
    discussed shortly afterwards at this conference 2 On Saturday 12th January 2013 part of the wacky weekend where we saw remarkable volatility experienced as one part of a very remarkable summer see here for an animation of a couple hours on that day What ultimately happened on Saturday A new record for electricity demand in Queensland for a Saturday was indeed reached with the demand climbing past 8300 MW to land less than 600 MW short of the all time record for working weekdays The 17 00 dispatch interval is recorded here in this NEM Watch snapshot showing scheduled demand measured on a Dispatch Target basis at 8364 MW the highest for the day wysiwyg field contenteditable false wf deltas 2 wf field field wysiwyg media wf formatter aibm ui media output wf settings style full width wf cache 1388976715 wf entity id 764211 wf entity type node As shown in the snapshot the price has spiked up towards the Market Price Cap of 12 500 per megawatt hour compare that to prices prevailing in the other states of 36 32 to 52 99 in graphic above on several occasions Similar to last weekend we see the Queensland demand has climbed past that in the larger NSW region Paul McArdle is the managing director of Global Roam Pty Ltd a business that provides computer software that helps users to analyse and understand energy markets Originally published in two parts by WattClarity Republished with permission Dispatch Target Demand the scheduled demand that AEMO has to meet in scheduling market generators Print this page Heatwave sends QLD prices soaring Paul McArdle 6 Jan 11 02 AM 2 Climate Energy markets More from Paul McArdle 26 Aug 8 years of growth in wind power in Australia 12 Jun State of Origin power up 09 May What s caused the drop in brown coal power 22 Feb Did demand side knock out 12 000 MWh price spike 23 Oct What s taking coal fired power to breaking point Related articles 10 Jan RWE to shut 7 power plants 10 Jan A fifth year of declining power consumption 10 Jan Negative spin Europe s amazing electricity prices 10 Jan Alcoa gives up on aid report 09 Jan Coal stuck in price squeeze More from Business Spectator Technology Adapt or die Commercial The Future of Energy Family Business Alan Kohler s Family Business China China Spectator Log in to post comments Comments Australia has no effective Submitted by Phil Best on Mon 2014 01 06 14 52 Australia has no effective concept of effectively preventing heat from entering buildings The following things need to be done 1 Do research about the different roof colors and materials and publish this data so that everybody can see what a huge difference the wrong roof color and material has Currently we are getting whole estates built using blue or black roof colors that need big air conditioning systems All building designers must be required to advise clients what the

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/article/2014/1/6/energy-markets/heatwave-sends-qld-prices-soaring (2014-01-13)
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  • Paul McArdle | Business Spectator
    the National Electricity Market as scheduled renewables rose to 12 per cent of the market Industries Advertising and Marketing Agribusiness Automotive Aviation Construction and Engineering Education Family Business Financial Services Food and Beverages Gaming and Racing Health and Pharmaceuticals HR Industrial relations Information Technology Infrastructure Insurance Manufacturing Media and Digital Resources and Energy Professional Services Property Retail Small Business SME Telecommunications The Ashes Tourism Transport and Logistics Video KGB TV China Spectator CEO Hub Leadership Lab Management Insights Young Leaders Knowledge Centre Adapt or Die Knowledge Hub Business Accelerators Webinars eBooks Menu Paul McArdle Heatwave sends QLD prices soaring On the back of a 38 degree day Queensland reached its highest ever electricity demand for a Saturday and prices subsequently soared by Paul McArdle 11 02am January 06 2 comments 8 years of growth in wind power in Australia Looking back over eight years of data we can see wind power is a growing source of energy in the NEM but geographic spacing beyond SA has not removed variability by Paul McArdle 10 47am August 26 7 comments State of Origin power up The north eastern states were abuzz with State of Origin fever last Wednesday but what impact did the event have on electricity demand by Paul McArdle 7 31am June 12 What s caused the drop in brown coal power Output at some brown coal fired power stations has been falling but the reasons go far beyond a price on carbon by Paul McArdle 8 10am May 09 3 comments Did demand side knock out 12 000 MWh price spike On Monday electricity prices in SA and Victoria skyrocketed to over 12 000 per MWh but then quickly subsided after a drop in demand Could this be a sign of the power of demand side response by Paul McArdle 11 22am February 22 What s taking coal fired power to breaking point Over the last 14 years average spot revenues for coal fired power stations have been declining in real terms Even without the carbon price increasing renewable capacity and declining demand coal fired plant was likely to close by Paul McArdle 11 12am October 23 Watt s up with wind in SA Wind made up more than half SA s electricity demand last Thursday but it s not the first time it has represented a large chunk of the state s demand However there have also been times when wind output has been low and demand very high by Paul McArdle 11 20pm September 10 Heatwave sends QLD prices soaring On the back of a 38 degree day Queensland reached its highest ever electricity demand for a Saturday and prices subsequently soared by Paul McArdle 11 02am January 06 2 comments 8 years of growth in wind power in Australia Looking back over eight years of data we can see wind power is a growing source of energy in the NEM but geographic spacing beyond SA has not removed variability by Paul McArdle 10 47am August 26

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/contributor/paul-mcardle (2014-01-13)
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  • Lynette Molyneaux | Business Spectator
    a clean set of financial numbers is needed to restore confidence Politics Australian Election Federal Budget International News Asia Europe USA National Affairs Latest stories Gagging visas are an attack on democracy The skyrocketing price of a journalist visa for Nauru will limit coverage of Australian prisoners on a vassal state It is an insult to the democratic principles this country stands for Britain will be poorer for Scotland the brave The economic case for Scottish independence is far from settled with doubts hanging over volatile oil prices and uncertainty over future revenues One thing is certain it would be a disaster for Britain Technology NBN Buzz Mobility BYOD Smart Devices Emerging Tech Applications Big Data Cloud Computing Data Management Reviews Social Media Start ups Security Data Security Identity Management Wireless Security Telecommunication Latest stories Google v Facebook Who knows wins The unparalleled Google Analytics service means Google knows more about internet users than anyone else And runner up Facebook must go further to mine precious user insights if it wants to compete Will Twitter s founder strike social gold twice Biz Stone is looking to tap into the selflessness of others with his latest venture Jelly Enterprises But the just launched app will have to quickly shift into something of real value if it s to become a mainstream success Climate Carbon markets Energy markets Renewable energy Resources Solar energy Wind power CleanTech Science Environment Green Deals Policy Politics Smart Energy Latest stories Marking the milestones of 2013 Australia s transition to a clean energy economy took some political blows in 2013 but progress on the ground was heartening with energy efficiency solar and wind all providing tangible proof of their future potential A fifth year of declining power consumption Power consumption fell again in 2013 dipping 2 8 per cent across the National Electricity Market as scheduled renewables rose to 12 per cent of the market Industries Advertising and Marketing Agribusiness Automotive Aviation Construction and Engineering Education Family Business Financial Services Food and Beverages Gaming and Racing Health and Pharmaceuticals HR Industrial relations Information Technology Infrastructure Insurance Manufacturing Media and Digital Resources and Energy Professional Services Property Retail Small Business SME Telecommunications The Ashes Tourism Transport and Logistics Video KGB TV China Spectator CEO Hub Leadership Lab Management Insights Young Leaders Knowledge Centre Adapt or Die Knowledge Hub Business Accelerators Webinars eBooks Menu Lynette Molyneaux Competitive power in a warmer Australia Australian needs a diversified energy system to cope with a changing climate Power sources reliant on water and networks vulnerable to high heat need to be reconsidered by Lynette Molyneaux 8 51am December 20 27 comments Search Markets Global Indices Index Last Chg Chg DOW JONES 16437 05 7 7 S P 500 1842 37 4 2 0 2 NASDAQ 4174 66 18 5 0 4 FTSE 100 6739 94 48 6 0 7 NIKKEI 15912 06 31 7 0 2 Hang Seng 22846 25 58 9 0 3 The Spectators US labour market can withstand the

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/contributor/lynette-molyneaux (2014-01-13)
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  • Santos seals GLNG gas deal | Business Spectator
    shift into something of real value if it s to become a mainstream success Climate Carbon markets Energy markets Renewable energy Resources Solar energy Wind power CleanTech Science Environment Green Deals Policy Politics Smart Energy Latest stories Marking the milestones of 2013 Australia s transition to a clean energy economy took some political blows in 2013 but progress on the ground was heartening with energy efficiency solar and wind all providing tangible proof of their future potential A fifth year of declining power consumption Power consumption fell again in 2013 dipping 2 8 per cent across the National Electricity Market as scheduled renewables rose to 12 per cent of the market Industries Advertising and Marketing Agribusiness Automotive Aviation Construction and Engineering Education Family Business Financial Services Food and Beverages Gaming and Racing Health and Pharmaceuticals HR Industrial relations Information Technology Infrastructure Insurance Manufacturing Media and Digital Resources and Energy Professional Services Property Retail Small Business SME Telecommunications The Ashes Tourism Transport and Logistics Video KGB TV China Spectator CEO Hub Leadership Lab Management Insights Young Leaders Knowledge Centre Adapt or Die Knowledge Hub Business Accelerators Webinars eBooks Menu Santos seals GLNG gas deal 20 Dec 2013 12 10 AM Industries Resources and Energy Climate Energy markets Major LNG project to be supplied with gas by Origin Energy You must be logged in to read this article Not a member yet Register today Business Spectator is available on all of your devices so you can access the latest news and commentary where and how you like Register now Already a member Sign in here Email Address Enter your Email Address Password Enter the password that accompanies your Email Address Remember me Log in Request new password By AAP and a staff reporter Santos has struck a deal with Origin Energy to buy gas to supply the Gladstone liquefied natural gas GLNG project in Queensland Origin will supply 100 petajoules PJ of gas over five years from January 2016 and could supply additional volumes of up to 94 PJ of gas during the same period The gas will be supplied at Wallumbilla commencing in January 2016 with pricing based on an oil linked formula Under the terms of the agreement Origin can supply additional volumes of up to 94 PJ of gas during the same five year period Vice President Downstream GLNG Rod Duke said GLNG had secured a diverse gas supply portfolio comprising supply from GLNG s own coal seam gas fields Santos portfolio gas underground storage and third party supply When combined with GLNG s quality LNG off take contracts with project partners PETRONAS and KOGAS this supply portfolio delivers significant value to the project Mr Duke said The GLNG project is progressing well we are now more than 72 complete and on track for first LNG in 2015 The agreement adds to existing agreements for the supply of 750 PJ of Santos portfolio gas to GLNG over 15 years and 365 PJ of Origin gas over 10 years Santos

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/news/2013/12/20/resources-and-energy/santos-seals-glng-gas-deal (2014-01-13)
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  • Slaying the poor's grubby golden goose | Business Spectator
    to support advanced fossil energy projects including carbon capture and storage and oxycombustion systems Stigmatising coal According to the IEA two thirds of the world s currently known reserves of fossil fuels oil gas and coal must remain unburned by 2050 if the rise in global temperatures is to be limited to no more than 2 degrees Celsius the target global policymakers have agreed Grassroots campaigns such as Bill McKibben s 350 org and the Carbon Tracker Initiative are pressing fossil fuel companies and governments to stop exploring and drilling new reserves and leave most of those which have already been identified in the ground so as not to bust the global carbon budget Campaigners aim to persuade major investors including university endowments pension funds and mutual funds to withhold capital from fossil fuel producing industries in order to force change The strategy is modelled on the successful divestment campaign waged against companies that did business in South Africa under apartheid during the 1980s and early 1990s It was outlined by McKibben in his now famous article about Global warming s terrifying new math published in Rolling Stone magazine in July 2012 and has been developed in more detail by the Stranded Assets Programme at Oxford University s Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment The direct effects of divestment are likely to be small according to researchers at the Smith School But by stigmatising the provision of capital to fossil fuel producers the indirect effects can be much larger Stranded assets and the fossil fuel campaign what does divestment mean for the valuation of fossil fuel assets October 2013 The outcome of the stigmatisation process which the fossil fuel divestment campaign has now triggered poses the most far reaching threat to fossil fuel companies they conclude Any direct effects pale in comparison Firms heavily criticised in the media suffer from a bad image that scares away suppliers subcontractors potential employees and customers Governments and politicians prefer to engage with clean firms to prevent adverse spillovers that could taint their reputation or jeopardise their re election One of the most important ways in which stigmatisation could impact fossil fuel companies is through the threat of new legislation If campaigners can create a credible threat that governments will impose a carbon tax or other restrictions on fossil fuel production it will create much more uncertainty about the monetisation of reserves and future cash flows and could lead to permanent compression of price earnings ratios and reduction in corporate share prices Not all fossil fuel companies are equally vulnerable As with other divestment campaigns the Smith School notes some players are able to avoid disapproval while others face intense public vilification A handful of fossil fuel companies are likely to become scapegoats From this perspective coal companies appear more vulnerable than oil and gas the Smith School concludes Coal combustion releases more carbon dioxide And the markets for equity and debt in coal companies tend to be less liquid and more fragmented making them much more vulnerable to an investor boycott Divestment announcements are thus more likely to affect coal stock prices since alternative investors cannot be as easily found as in the oil and gas sector In the lending and bond markets a diminishing pool of debt finance and a higher hurdle rate will have the greatest impact on companies and marginal projects related to coal and the least effect on those related to crude oil the researchers wrote Due to the phased nature of the process of stigmatisation investors seeking to reduce their fossil fuel exposure in general are thus likely to begin by liquidating coal stocks Common enemy The coal divestment process has already had some notable successes among large institutional investors It has also won important support from policymakers The US Treasury has informed the multilateral development banks it will not support coal fired power generation projects other than in exceptional circumstances But the divestment campaigners most powerful allies are in the oil and gas industry If there is an overall limit to how much fossil fuel can be burned implied by the global carbon budget then there is a zero sum competition between fossil fuel producers If oil gas and coal each comprise roughly one third of global fossil fuel resources and two thirds of reserves must remain unburned putting coal off limits leaves a bigger share of the carbon budget for oil and gas firms Five of the biggest oil companies Exxon ConocoPhillips Chevron BP and Shell are among 29 major companies operating in the United States that are planning on the assumption the US government will eventually put a price on carbon according to The New York Times Large companies prepared to pay price on carbon December 5 The Times noted the big oil companies slow evolution on climate change policy and softening hostility to carbon pricing But it is hardly surprising As The Times explains ExxonMobil is now the nation s biggest natural gas producer meaning it will stand to profit in a future in which a price is placed on carbon emissions Coal which produces twice the carbon pollution of natural gas would be a loser In the war on coal as coal producers term it the coal miners are almost friendless Major oil and gas producers as well as the renewables industry are all willing to join with climate campaigners to point the finger at coal to secure a bigger share of the energy market and divert attention from their own emissions Still essential In political terms coal appears doomed at least in the advanced economies It generates too many emissions and has too many enemies But the industry still has some enormous advantages In emerging economies like China India and Southeast Asia electricity consumption per capita is a tiny fraction of the advanced economies and is forecast to rise enormously over the next few decades Policymakers are under enormous pressure to provide more electric power and ensure its reliability It is

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/article/2013/12/19/policy-politics/slaying-poors-grubby-golden-goose (2014-01-13)
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  • John Kemp | Business Spectator
    a missed opportunity by John Kemp 9 40am May 31 America s renewables revolution Big Oil may seem like a Goliath but with all the energy efficiency and renewable programs underway in the US an energy transformation is closer than many analysts think by John Kemp 8 41am May 24 The risk in a full throttle clean energy race The drive to get much needed renewable energy technology to market may be seeing some funding needlessly wasted It could be time for equity to play a stronger role in the funding mix by John Kemp 11 29am April 26 Desperation in the CCS gamble Politicians around the world have gambled on carbon capture and storage technology but with no full scale power plants with CCS successfully built to date the bet is looking risky by John Kemp 8 31am April 04 The end for coal New US emissions rules should see the gradual demise of coal fired power generation and they have changed the game in the energy sector by John Kemp 11 18am March 30 Obama s broken energy policy Barack Obama s all of the above approach continues the trend of dysfunctional energy policy in the US And no one s buying it by John Kemp 8 36am March 27 Nearing a simple fracking solution Groundwater contamination from fracking may have been caused by poor well construction rather than the process of fracking itself With a few safety tweaks the technology could yet have a popular future by John Kemp 7 17am March 15 Obama s each way bet on energy President Obama s approach to the Keystone XL pipeline sums up his energy policy a bewildering series of policy shifts in an effort to keep everyone on side by John Kemp 8 53am March 01 Who s afraid of fracking Hydraulic fracturing is a politically fraught technology targeted by protesters around the world but regulators may be able to find a middle ground by John Kemp 11 14am February 08 Fracking up the climate debate Hydraulic fracturing has solved one problem peak fuel but sharpened another climate change Policymakers can no longer rely on increasing scarcity to restrain demand and CO2 emissions by John Kemp 8 37am January 27 The state of America s energy policy Obama may be touting a balanced approach to cleantech and fossil fuels but the erratic approach to policymaking that has hampered development of stable affordable energy supplies has not changed by John Kemp 11 59am January 25 Page 1 Slaying the poor s grubby golden goose Coal power stations are responsible for around 60 per cent of all emissions yet have dragged billions out of poverty How do we best put this omnipotent fuel back to bed by John Kemp 10 55am December 19 5 comments King coal s grey future Coal has several alternative futures Will the industry win and find more environmentally acceptable ways to use coal Or will politicians and investors drive a different path by John Kemp

    Original URL path: http://www.businessspectator.com.au/contributor/john-kemp (2014-01-13)
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