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  • Discover Australia
    Us Contact us Sitemap Secure Client Log in A Migration Lawyer is available to assist you Register now Discover Australia Australian Immigration and Visa Services Discover Australia Discover the land down under Want to know more about the culture favourite

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/Discover_Australia/184 (2016-02-17)
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  • History - Australian history
    of fear that France was ready to claim the island and sizable settlement by free migrants quickly followed Although settlements south and north of Sydney had been attempted in the same period including the penal outstation at Newcastle established 1804 only Van Diemen s Land had become a large permanent settlement by the 1820s During the 1820s however the pace of settlement speeded up In 1825 the western boundary of British claims was shifted west to the 129th meridian again to counter fears of French intervention and a settlement was established in the Bathurst region of the far north In 1827 Edmund Lockyer began permanent settlement at Albany Western Australia and Great Britain laid claim to the whole continent Early Australian Society The convicts and reaction to them became the major theme of early Australian history By the time the British government abolished the transportation of convicts to eastern Australia in the 1850s more than 150 000 had been sent to New South Wales and Tasmania see Transportation Approximately 20 per cent were women and about 30 per cent were Irish Drawn predominantly from the urban poor many had been repeatedly convicted of petty crimes many of the women had been prostitutes Most of the convicts were poorly educated only about half of them could read or write A minority of the prisoners were from the wealthier classes and were serving sentences for crimes such as forgery these convicts were often able to use their training in business and in government offices In general however because they were unskilled and unaccustomed to the rigours of colonial or prison life the convicts were a particularly difficult group with which to build a new society Until the 1830s colonial officials endorsed harsh punishments for convicts who committed crimes in the colony Flogging was a common penalty up to 200 lashes for crimes of theft Although most convicts were fed and clothed by the government many were assigned to private employers Those with cunning and skills might accumulate wealth and a few became the founders of prominent colonial families Although seals were hunted before 1820 along the coast and especially in the rich waters of Bass Strait it was wool which connected Australian society with the metropolitan economy Gregory Blaxland and William Charles Wentworth opened up the route through the Blue Mountains about 80 to 120 km 50 to 75 mi west of Sydney in 1813 initiating the westward settlement of New South Wales Together with the southerly treks of Andrew Hamilton Hume and William Hovell in 1824 and Major Thomas Mitchell in 1836 Blaxland and Wentworth s explorations spurred the transfer of flocks and herds to inland pastures By 1829 an arc of about 241 to 322 km 150 200 mi around Sydney had been settled and designated the Nineteen Counties However the colonial government had become concerned about the rapid dispersal of the graziers who were known as squatters because they obtained licences to squat on the land they wanted rather than buying it Fearing loss of control the government tried to discourage settlement beyond the Nineteen Counties These efforts failed in part because of the rising demand for wool from British textile mills Like England the Australian colonies were officially Anglican in religion The authorities however neglected religious instruction and the Anglican faith was not the religion of the bulk of the population Roman Catholicism the faith of the Irish convicts and Methodism vied with the official religion but overall the settlers of New South Wales tended to be indifferent to religion Education was also neglected by the colonial government only a few schools were established primarily for orphans Wealthier colonists employed private tutors for their children The colony however did develop a lively press beginning in 1803 with the publication of the Sydney Gazette and the New South Wales Advertiser The Gazette s editor George Howe also published the first books in Sydney including a volume of poetry 1819 by Judge Barron Field Earlier David Collins who had been with Phillip had published in London the first history of Australia An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales 2 vols 1798 1802 Wentworth who was born in the colony meanwhile had followed up on his Blue Mountain crossing and published Description of New South Wales in 1817 and a book of verses Australasia in 1823 The following year he founded The Australian a newspaper that campaigned for the emancipists Expanding Colonization Between the late 1820s and the 1880s Australia underwent rapid changes that laid the foundation for its present society These included the formation between 1829 and 1859 of four of the six colonies that eventually became the states of Australia the expansion of sheep and cattle raising into the interior and the discovery of gold and other minerals Land Exploration The first European explorers of the interior played an important role in Australia s early economic history and an even more important one in the formation of the national psyche It was their exploits rather than those of the sailors who had mapped the continent s coasts and first made it known to the wider world which caught the Australian imagination In the process they laid down a rich deposit of myth and legend which has stimulated successive generations of Australian poets painters and writers The pioneering work of Blaxland and Wentworth across the Blue Mountains was followed up by George William Evans who retraced their route to Bathurst founded 1815 In the 1820s John Oxley further mapped the inland plains and rivers especially the Lachlan and Macquarie Oxley also explored the southern coasts of the future Queensland in 1827 Alan Cunningham pioneered European exploration of the interior of that state Possibly the most famous of this group of explorers was Captain Charles Sturt who in 1828 1830 traced the chief arteries of the Murray Darling Basin now the agricultural heartland of Australia Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell confirmed Sturt s work and opened the route from New South Wales to the rich land of western Victoria 1836 The coastal hinterland of Western Australia was mapped by Sir George Grey 1837 1840 and by Edward John Eyre Both Eyre who succeeded in going overland from Adelaide to Albany in 1840 and Sturt failed in their attempts to reach the centre of the continent from Adelaide John McDouall Stuart was successful in 1860 and went on 1862 to reach Darwin overland The most famous of the immigrant explorers of the central and North east was Ludwig Leichhardt who led two successful expeditions 1844 1846 1847 into the region from Sydney before disappearing in mysterious circumstances while trying to cross the Darling Downs to Perth An even more famous tragedy was that of Robert O Hara Burke and William John Wills who perished attempting to return from their mismanaged expedition 1860 1861 to the Gulf of Carpentaria from Melbourne Exploration of Western Australia during the 1870s created several new Australian explorer heroes including John Forrest and Ernest Giles New Settlements In 1827 Captain later Sir James Frazier Stirling explored the Swan River on the western coast two years later with a group of British investors he returned as the Governor of the colony of Western Australia Underfinanced Stirling s settlement of free colonists at Perth stagnated In 1850 the colony requested convicts to increase its labour supply and received about 10 000 before transportation to Western Australia was ended in 1868 Only with the discovery of gold in the 1890s however were the fortunes of Western Australia reversed South Australia with its capital of Adelaide was established in July 1837 Proposals to establish the colony were inspired by Edward Gibbon Wakefield the English social reformer and supported by the British liberal intelligentsia and dissenting religious groups Wakefield wanted to create new colonies reflecting British socio economic cultural values By selling land rather than giving it away as had previously been the case in Australia Wakefield believed that the colonists would be forced to maximize its value by cultivation The proceeds of land sales would be used to sponsor the immigration of labourers who would have to contribute to the development of the colony by working for the colonial farmers before becoming land owners themselves By controlling land prices he assumed he could regulate colonial expansion The new colony after much initial hardship eventually succeeded as a society of small grain farmers with a distinct ethos based on its founders emphasis on family migration religious equality and free markets in land and labour Growth of Sheep Grazing Australia s soils low rainfall and recurrent droughts were better suited however for large scale grazing than for arable farming and the most successful and dramatic transformation of the Australian continent occurred in the 1830s and 1840s as squatters established huge sheep runs Paying only 10 a year for a licence squatters could claim virtually as much land as they wanted The expansion of sheep grazing resulted in the colonization of the Port Phillip district of southern New South Wales after the mid 1830s The settlement of Melbourne began in 1835 and the town flourished immediately During the 1840s there were growing demands from the colonists for separation from New South Wales This was granted in 1851 when the Port Phillip district became the colony of Victoria with its capital at Melbourne To the north beginning with the Moreton Bay district colonization was slower However graziers gradually established the outlines of Australia s sixth colony Queensland with its capital at Brisbane Queensland was separated from New South Wales in 1859 Between 1830 and 1850 the value of wool exports increased from 2 million to 41 million With new immigrants and the growth of the capital cities each of which served as the major port for its region the Australian colonies began to agitate for more control over their governmental systems Development of Political Institutions The transfer of more authority to the Australian colonies was helped by Great Britain s adoption of free trade in the late 1840s Free trade which meant that Britain would buy from the lowest priced supplier and sell in the most profitable market eliminated at least in principle the need for colonies Thus in 1850 without having to unite into a common front the eastern colonies received new constitutions giving them responsible self government Victoria South Australia and Van Diemen s Land which changed its name to Tasmania in 1854 were given legislative councils with two thirds of the membership to be elected New South Wales had been granted the same provision in 1842 By the mid 1850s each of the eastern colonies refashioned its governmental system and gained control over its land policy the land grant system had already been ended in Australia in 1831 replaced by sale The new systems vested power in a cabinet or council of ministers responsible to the lower house of the bicameral legislature The lower house was popularly elected by 1860 in all the eastern states except Tasmania elections were based on a nearly universal adult male franchise Combined with voting by ballot instead of by the raising of hands and other innovations these changes made the new governments extremely democratic for their time The new constitutions reflected the interests of the rapidly expanding urban populations who wanted to reduce the political power of the graziers the latter however still managed during the 1850s and 1860s to gain more security in their landholdings Gold Rush and Consequences The gold rush of the 1850s sped up the development of these young social and political systems In April 1851 Edward Hargraves found gold at Summer Hill Creek in east central New South Wales With the recent experience of the California gold rush in mind others joined in the rush which quickly became centred in Victoria at Mount Alexander Ballarat and Bendigo Gold was later found elsewhere in New South Wales and Queensland In the following ten years Australia exported more than 124 million worth of gold alone By 1861 the settler population had reached almost 1 2 million a threefold increase over the 1850 population of 400 000 Britons Americans and Canadians joined the immigrants to the eastern colonies In Victoria the miners quickly became irritated with the high cost of mining licences and restrictions on their right to search for gold Before the fees were reduced a small band of miners staged an uprising at the Eureka stockade at Ballarat in December 1854 Both miners and colonists responded with alarm however to the influx of Chinese immigrants also attracted by gold In 1856 Victoria restricted the entry of Chinese Eventually the exclusion of all but European settlers gave the colonies a White Australia policy that was defended vigorously whenever there appeared to be new threats to the jobs or culture of white Australians For a time it seemed that Queensland which began to import Polynesian labourers for sugar cane plantations in the 1860s might remain at odds with the other colonies but it eventually conformed the plantations were replaced by small scale sugar farms run by whites The white tralia policy proving popular across the country was taken up and elaborated into a national policy by the new Federal government after 1901 Economic Controversy In the 1860s the gold fields began to decline Although wool exports kept the colonies fairly prosperous colonial debate soon centred on the role of government in the economy In particular railway construction due to the high cost and the absence of internal market centres became a government activity between 1875 and 1891 the length of railways rose from 2 575 km 1 600 mi to more than 16 100 km 10 000 mi In 1866 Victoria followed by South Australia and Tasmania imposed high tariffs on imported goods in order to protect its own small industries and markets New South Wales and Queensland to a lesser extent continued to stay with a free trade policy Throughout the 1870s and 1880s the arguments over free trade versus protection divided the press the political parties and the colonies This together with the continuing jealousies among them hindered any significant attempts at cooperation and possible union among the six colonies until the 1890s Treatment of the Aborigines Phillip s 1788 settlement marked the start of regular contact between Europeans and the Aborigines Although many Aborigines used the land around Sydney as their campsites and hunting domains only a few major confrontations took place between the colonists and the indigenous population in the first decade of white settlement With the settling of Van Diemen s Land however Aboriginal communities began to be destroyed on a large scale Unable to overcome colonial weapons and despite the official British policy of protection the 5 000 Aborigines of the island were quickly reduced to a mere handful On the mainland where the graziers sought lands for their sheep runs the Aboriginal communities were forced to retreat into the drier interior In principle the official colonial policy throughout the 19th century was to treat the Aborigines as equals with the intention of eventually converting them to Christianity and European civilization Governor Macquarie established a school for Aboriginal children Such acts however poorly supported in practice and always underfinanced were the exception In fact moving from a policy of protection to one of punishment was typical of the early colonial government The culture clash was particularly severe on the frontier as during the 1830s and 1840s the pastoral frontier pushed inland Some Aborigines were employed on sheep stations and others were used for police patrols but general attitudes towards Aborigines as a whole are reflected in the fact that they were brutally hunted and poisoned by settlers Aboriginal women were abducted and raped and children were separated from their parents Although there were individual exceptions Australian colonists in the 19th century generally assumed that Aboriginal culture would die out On the local and colonial levels the active destruction or neglect of Aboriginal culture was often accompanied by segregational practices that herded the indigenous population on to reserves and excluded them from colonial life Forced to survive on ever scantier supplies of food the Aborigines were steadily reduced in number By the 20th century sizable communities of Aborigines able to practise traditional lifestyles were confined primarily to the Northern Territory Queensland and New South Wales Not until the 1950s did the Aboriginal population begin to inch back to its pre European level and the government begin to review and correct past treatment Society and Culture in the 19th Century The rapid increase in Australia s population between 1830 and 1860 contributed to the growth of the six capital cities Unable to support dense settlement of their interiors the colonies became increasingly urbanized around the initial points of colonization on the coastal plain With the decline of gold mining in Victoria and New South Wales in the 1860s even the prospectors drifted to the cities By the end of the century Sydney and Melbourne were among the world s largest cities even though Australia as a whole still had a small population Each capital served as the major port for its respective colony Perceiving others as rivals each city and colony tended to emphasize its own identity Contacts among individual colonies were secondary to their ties with Great Britain and rivalry was common Victoria and New South Wales for example each used a different gauge for their railways All the colonies however shared a culture that was heavily influenced by the capital cities In the 1850s it was merchants and professionals who agitated for political reform and the making of new constitutions Small urban manufacturers and the growth of mass trade unionism after the mid century aided in the formation of cabinet governments and the passage of legislation favourable to the urban populations Victoria s workers pioneered the eight hour day in 1856 Following the lead of New South Wales the colonial political systems tended to keep the large

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/History/238 (2016-02-17)
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  • Arriving in Australia - Arrving in Australia as a migrant
    you Register now Arriving in Australia Australian Immigration and Visa Services Discover Australia Arriving in Australia Arrving in Australia as a migrant You have been advised that your visa has been granted What next 1 How to evidence your visa

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/Arriving_in_Australia/113 (2016-02-17)
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  • Evidencing your visa
    the DIBP When you get your visa grant letter immediately make 2 copies and certify them of your Australian visa page and keep these in your visa file in case your passport is lost or stolen makes it easier to get a new visa issued Open up a visa migration file for yourself and keep all critical documents in that folder see checklist below of what you should keep in it This folder must be kept in a safe place and taken with you when you fly to Australia Check the visa and accompanying letters Make sure you arrange to make your first entry into Australia by the date shown Note that the main applicant MUST enter Australia first or at the same time as the dependents On your first entry you may stay indefinitely or make only a short entry to validate your visa Note that a permanent residence visa is normally exceptions apply valid for entry apart from the first entry for 5 years You MUST take up residency within this 5 year period Should you not do so you will at best get a 3 month Resident Return Visa RRV at the end of the 5 year period if you are not resident in Australia to enable you to return to Australia as a resident If you are resident in Australia at the end of your 5 year initial period you may apply for a RRV in Australia to enable you to travel in out of Australia if you are not yet a citizen To get a 5 year RRV you must stay in Australia at least 9 of the last 12 months of the initial 5 years absolute minimum criteria for a 5 year RRV To become a citizen you must be resident in Australia as

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/Evidencing_your_visa/114 (2016-02-17)
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  • First entry into Australia - arriving in Australia for the first time after visa grant
    passports Collect your baggage and clear customs If arranged an ASA representative or agent will be in the arrivals hall to meet with you and to take you to your initial destination Keep a lookout for your name on a board Remember to bring Your drivers licence not international licence just your normal licence Credit cards Any other identification documents you may have If you bring any foreign currency or TC s try to bring AUD USD or Sterling If you are going to stay for a period exceeding 4 weeks you may as well Open a bank account Get your Australian drivers licence your ID in Australia Arrange to meet an ASA BMS representative to discuss employment and business matters Hints tips Spend at least 3 weeks in each city you are thinking of making your home town and visit at least 2 of the major cities Do not stay in hotels We recommend self catering units will give you the opportunity to experience shopping and real living conditions in Australia Rent a car from a place like BAYSWATER much cheaper than the big companies Attend an ASA info session for new migrants Look around investigate drive and talk to other migrants advisors friends and ASA representatives Hints Tips Send your CV to us at least 6 weeks before you come over for employment assistance Get ASA BMS to assist you with your business matters planning business migrants and start this at least 4 6 weeks before coming over yourself Bring your visa migration folder with you Do not buy a house to live in for your first year rent Much cheaper and you can do much better with your capital in your first year than tying it up in a house Investment properties are an entirely different story

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/First_entry_into_Australia/115 (2016-02-17)
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  • The Move - checklist - checklist prior to moving to Australia
    3 4 days to clear customs and you move into your home furnished with your own goodies makes you feel at home yet you have additional 2 weeks or so if you have not found the perfect place to call home where your goods are stored free of charge Make sure your passport with the visa in it is kept safe and that your passport is valid at least 5 years after arrival in Oz saves countless hassles later on Make arrangements with your assurance and insurance companies regards your life and other insurance will you cash them out make them paid up or keep them going Make sure you keep a bank account in your home country active and arrange for a trusted person to have power of attorney for the account Make suitable arrangements in your home country with the taxation department get a tax clearance if required do not necessarily state that you are migrating Note that Australian authorities do not require a tax clearance from you Get the house on the market should do this before the 6 week period starts actually and arrange to vacate only a week at max before you depart for Australia Get settlement figures and budget for this for your cars and any other goods including any loans and credit cards if applicable and make arrangements to settle these a week before departing If possible keep one credit card for use in Australia initially until you get an Aus card and make provision to pay the card in your home country one of the reasons why you need an operational bank account in your home country Get offers on your cars and any other items you will sell Send out invitations to all friends and relatives that will remain in your

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/The_Move_checklist/116 (2016-02-17)
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  • The move - checklist part 2 - checklist prior to moving to australia part two
    days to clear Buy travellers cheques and some AUD cash for your first few days around AUD 2000 should be sufficient Make sure you have a valid credit card and make provision to have the card paid in your home country this makes booking paying for accommodation rental cars etc much easier when you first arrive here Ensure that you have up to date prescriptions and sufficient supply to last

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/The_move_checklist_part_2/117 (2016-02-17)
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  • Planning your move - 8 weeks countdown - countdown prior to moving to australia
    and or dolly Plenty of boxes Start packing the items that you will not need over the next few weeks e g extra linen or spare crockery Handy tip Be aware that items you pack yourself are unlikely to be insured for breakage Therefore it is a good idea to leave the packing of fragile items such as glass and china to the professionals Two weeks before the move Transfer all your bank accounts to new branch locations Cancel all deliveries e g newspaper milk Check on the arrangements for the new telephone service and other connections Consider storing jewellery and valuables including certain legal documents at your bank during the move Alternatively set these aside to carry with you on the day of the move Ensure your possessions will be fully insured during the move If not arrange for extra insurance cover Contact the council where you are going to reside to find out about garbage pick up local regulations and other information One week before the move Return all library books and rented videos Also don t forget to collect any dry cleaning shoes from the repairer or lay bys If necessary arrange a babysitter for the day of the move Tidy up the garden and outside area Arrange for new locks to be installed on the house you are moving into Defrost your refrigerator and freezer Finalise all packing Number each box and take notes on their contents Also keep items from different rooms in separate boxes Keep in mind that heavier items deserve smaller boxes Mark any items that should be handled with care Pack bags of clothing and toiletries to take with you rather than send with the mover Have the carpet steam cleaned Also put together a box of items which could be useful for the day of the move This might include such items as scissors a utility knife paper plates and towels toilet paper drinks cups soap bandaids headache tablets tea towels rubbish bags and small toys for children Moving day Remove all remaining food from your refrigerator and freezer Clean out cupboards sweep the floors and ensure the house is tidy for its next inhabitant Double check rooms cupboards drawers shelves outdoor areas and the garage to make sure you ve taken everything Turn off all services including the mains switch and taps Lock all windows and doors securely Leave the old house keys with the real estate agent for collection by the new inhabitant Check to see if all the services are on and appliances are working in your new home Check off each box as it comes off the truck Register for voting in the new electorate Visit your new post office to see whether they are holding any mail for you Q What are quarantine requirements Answer The Australian Quarantine Service has strict requirements for the importing or exporting of cargo These requirements are very strict and must be adhered to Breeches of quarantine not only incur stiff

    Original URL path: http://australia-migration.com.au/page/Planning_your_move_8_weeks_countdown/118 (2016-02-17)
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