archive-au.com » AU » A » AUSTRALIA-MIGRATION.COM.AU

Total: 307

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • Aboriginals, currency
    The May 1991 report of a royal commission set up to investigate Aboriginal deaths in custody contained evidence of racism in the police force and more than 300 recommendations to improve race elations and increase Aboriginal self determination In June the government imposed a permanent ban on mining at a historic Aboriginal site in the Northern Territory A year later in June 1992 in a landmark ruling the High Court recognized the existence of land title before the first European settlement in 1788 The so called Mabo decision said that Aborigines and Torres Straits Islanders should be able to claim native title if they could show a close and continuing relationship with the land in question It overturned the concept of terra nullius land belonging to no one on which many previous Aboriginal land claims had foundered and established a new entitlement to land not grounded in statute law but acknowledging the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders as the original owners of the continent However at the same time the Mabo decision sought not to disturb lawful non Aboriginal land title In 1993 the Government enacted the Native Title Act which tried to harmonize the two aspects of the court s ruling by setting up a federal tribunal to validate existing land titles and to provide compensation if Aboriginal claims were deemed to have been extinguished About US 1 1 billion was provisionally allocated to pay compensation Most states adopted compatible legislation except Western Australia where mining interests are particularly strong and where it is estimated that up to 40 per cent of the state could fall subject to native title claims The state government in fact legislated to extinguish all native title and offered only some rights to traditional usage of land Western Australia also took the federal government to the High Court contesting the validity of the Native Titles Act On March 16 1995 the court ruled that the Native Title Act was valid and declared Western Australia s rival legislation to be unconstitutional Currency and Banking Click on the image to view the full range The unit of currency is the Australian dollar divided into 100 cents and coined in 5 10 20 50 1and 2 pieces A 1 28 equals US 1 1997 The currency system was converted in 1966 from the old British system of pounds shillings and pence to the decimal one At the changeover the new Australian dollar was worth approximately half the value of the pound the currency it replaced With the absence of a one and two cent coin the price of commodities gets rounded of to the nearest cent when it s time to pay up The first Australian bank was established in Sydney in 1817 The Reserve Bank of Australia established in 1911 is the central bank and bank of issue including note issue The banking system includes the components of the Federal Commonwealth Banking Corporation comprising the Commonwealth Federal Bank the commonwealth Development Bank and the Commonwealth Savings

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Aboriginals_currency/235 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Transport, defence
    network follows a similar pattern to that of the railways radiating from the ports and especially the state capitals Australia has approximately 816 370 km 507 270 mi of roads including some 16 000 km 9 941 mi of national highways Many main roads were improved during the 1980s under a bicentennial federal programme but road quality generally is variable In the early 1990s more than 10 million motor vehicles equivalent to more than one vehicle for every two people were registered The capital cities are connected by inexpensive bus services A comprehensive network of airline services links major cities and remote settlements Because of the long distances between cities and the country s ideal flying conditions Australians are frequent users of air travel In the early 1990s domestic airlines carried more than 18 million passengers a year The domestic airlines were deregulated in 1990 ending agreements between the national domestic carrier Australian Airlines and its sole private sector competitor Ansett allowing duplication of times and services The ending of their monopoly allowed smaller private operators to enter the market In 1992 Australian Airlines merged with Qantas Airways Australia s privatized international line Qantas operates services to more than 20 countries some 43 international airlines flew to Australia in the early 1990s The main national and international airports are at Sydney Kingsford Smith and Melbourne Tullamarine the other state capitals also have international airports as does Cairns Coastal and transoceanic shipping is vital to the Australian economy There are about 70 ports of commercial significance most of them on the east coast Sydney with adjacent Botany Bay is the most important port for mixed freight Other major ports include Port Hedland specializing in bulk iron ore shipments Melbourne Fremantle Newcastle Port Kembla Geelong Brisbane Port Gladstone and Port Walcott Defence

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Transport_defence/236 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Health & Welfare
    family allowance for all children under 16 years of age is payable to the parent or other person with custody In 1984 the federal government introduced a universal health scheme known as Medicare financed in part by a 1 25 per cent levy on taxable incomes above a stated minimum It covers automatic entitlement to subsidized medical benefits and free hospital in patient and outpatient care A home and community

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Health_and_Welfare/237 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Education - Education in Australia
    non English speaking backgrounds Education is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15 in all except Tasmania where the upper age limit is 16 Most children however start school at five State schools provide free secular education students may attend religious classes provided by the clergy of various denominations About 72 per cent of children attend state schools which are normally co educational and comprehensive in structure In addition to the state school system there are private schools which are usually denominational often single sex and charge tuition fees A number of private schools which in some states are called public schools as in Great Britain accept day students and boarders Special arrangements are made for children living in the remote outback or otherwise isolated from the school system including extension learning schemes and radio tuition through the Schools of the Air Schooling is provided at kindergartens and play centres for children from 2 to 6 years of age the Australian Broadcasting Corporation conducts broadcasts for kindergarten children unable to attend such centres Most children transfer from the primary to the secondary school level at the age of 12 Secondary schools known as high schools and secondary colleges provide five or six year courses which enable final year students to take state examinations for university entrance In the early 1990s Australia had more than 10 000 state and private primary and secondary schools with a combined annual enrolment of some 3 million students Specialized Schools The federal government maintains training colleges for the defence services the Australian Forestry School in Canberra and the School of Pacific Administration in Sydney The last mentioned conducts training programmes attended primarily by civil service administrators from Papua New Guinea Federal funds also support the Australian Film Television and Radio School the Australian Maritime

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Education/239 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Culture - Australian culture
    society in which the Aborigines marginalized since the arrival of Europeans have also begun to play a larger part Australia produced noted writers and painters from the earliest days and Nobel Laureates like the author Patrick White However a much wider cross section of society now participates in the arts thanks to government subsidies and the provision of greatly improved facilities State capitals and provincial towns alike have built or

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Culture/240 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Forstry, fishing & mining - Forestry, fishing and mining in Australia
    of Australia holds great promise for the future development of the country The gold discoveries of the 1850s were responsible for the first major wave of immigration and for the settlement of the interior Today Australia is self sufficient in most minerals of economic significance and in several cases is among the world s leading producers Minerals are found in most states but Western Australia has the largest share of total mineral production 37 per cent and contains 63 per cent of metallic mineral production Production of coal oil natural gas and metallic minerals was valued at about US 19 billion a year in the early 1990s Metallic minerals account for about 42 per cent of total output with gold and iron ore the most significant components Output in tonnes of the main minerals in 1994 included black coal 178 3 million brown coal or lignite 49 8 million bauxite 41 2 million copper 434 000 gold 255 8 iron ore and concentrate 123 890 manganese ore 2 04 million nickel 72 000 tin 7 970 and uranium 2 750 Australia accounts for some 12 per cent of the world s gold production About 70 per cent of the total is derived from Western Australia notably from near Kalgoorlie The gold is mainly exported to Singapore Japan Switzerland and Hong Kong Since the discovery of the Kimberleys diamond deposit Western Australia in 1979 Australia has become the world s largest producer by volume with about 36 per cent of the world s total Production reached 42 million carats in 1993 almost all came from the giant Argyle Mine in the Kimberleys About 97 per cent of Australia s iron ore output comes from the Pilbara region also in Western Australia Iron ore reserves also exist at Iron Knob in South Australia on Cockatoo Island in Yampi Sound off Western Australia in north west Tasmania and in Gippsland in Victoria Almost all of the iron ore is exported Australia is now Japan s main supplier and other important markets include China Germany Korea and Taiwan The discovery and exploitation of enormous bauxite deposits enabled Australia to become in the 1980s the world s largest bauxite and alumina producer and one of the largest aluminium producers The most important mines are located to the south of Perth in Western Australia on the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland and on the Gove Peninsula in the Northern Territory Uranium mines are located in the Northern Territory the Ranger and Nabarlek mines and at Olympic Dam in South Australia All production is exported exports are in line with the country s anti nuclear policy The hard or bituminous black coal industry is heavily concentrated in New South Wales and Queensland which have about 47 per cent each of production Australia is one of the world s largest exporters of coal Victoria s lignite or brown coal desposits are mined to supply the electricity generating industry Nickel is mined at Kambalda south east of Kalgoorlie at

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Forstry_fishing_and_mining/241 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Tourism, geology
    account of the balance of payments There has been a strong growth in domestic tourism during this period which has tapped the expanding range of attractions in each state and territory theme and amusement parks zoos art galleries and museums certain mines and factories national parks historic sites and wineries Foreign visitors show broadly similar interests but most come on standardized packages which focus on a few key attractions notably Sydney the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland the Northern Territory s Kakadu National Park and the beach resorts in the Brisbane Cairns and Sydney regions Energy Electricity supply is the responsibility of the state governments In the early 1990s about 89 per cent of electricity was generated in thermal facilities the great majority of which burned bituminous coal or lignite The country also had several hydroelectric plants notably the major Snowy Mountains Scheme primarily serving Canberra Melbourne and Sydney and a number of smaller facilities in Tasmania In the early 1990s Australia s aggregate installed electric generating capacity was about 33 8 million kW and its annual production of electricity totalled almost 160 billion kWh Australia is almost self sufficient in oil requirements about 4 per cent of annual consumption was imported in the early 1990s Geology Australia was originally part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland which had earlier formed part of the supercontinent of Pangaea Much of it is geologically ancient the oldest known rock formations have been dated at between 3 and 4 3 billion years old The great plateau of the Western Australian Shield is underlaid by a vast stable shield of Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks ranging in age from 570 million to 3 7 billion years These form the core of the ancestral continent which with Antarctica split off from Gondwanaland during the Jurassic

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Tourism_geology/242 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive

  • Water & land rescources - rescources of Australia
    between the Indian and South Pacific oceans south east of Asia and forming with the nearby island of Tasmania the Commonwealth of Australia a self governing member of the monwealth of Nations The continent is bounded on the north by the Timor Sea the Arafura Sea and the Torres Strait on the east by the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea on the south by the Bass Strait and the Indian Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean The Commonwealth of Australia extends about 4 000 km 2 485 mi from Cape Byrne in the east to Western Australia and about 3 700 km 2 300 mi from Cape York in the north to Tasmania in the south Its coastline measures some 36 735 km 22 826 mi The area of Australia including Tasmania is 7 682 300 sq km 2 966 151 sq mi The area of the continent alone is 7 614 500 sq km 2 939 974 sq mi making Australia the smallest continent and one of the largest countries in the world The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of six states New South Wales Queensland South Australia Tasmania Victoria and Western Australia and two territories the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory Australia s external dependencies are the Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island the Cocos Islands the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island the Ashmore and Cartier Islands and the Coral Sea Islands Territory Canberra is the capital of Australia Remotest of the settled continents Australia is also the flattest and except for Antarctica the driest The average elevation is about 300 m 987 ft and only 6 per cent of its area is above 610 m 2 000 ft The vast interior of Australia known to white Australians as the Outback is made up of plains and low plateaux which are generally higher in the north east Low lying coastal plains averaging about 65 km 40 mi in width fringe the continent The coastal plains in the east south east and south west are the most densely populated areas of Australia In the east the coastal plains are separated from the interior by the Great Dividing Range or in eastern Highlands This mountainous region averages approximately 1 220 m 4 000 ft in height and runs parallel to the eastern coast from the Cape York Peninsula in the north to Victoria State in the south east Subdivisions of the range have many names including from north to south the New England Range the Blue Mountains and the Australian Alps including the Snowy Mountains In Victoria where the range extends westward it is known as the Grampians or by the name given by the indigenous Aborigines Gariwerd The highest peak in the Australian Alps and the loftiest in Australia is Mount Kosciusko 2 228 m 7 310 ft in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales The Great Dividing Range continues into Tasmania which was separated from the south

    Original URL path: http://www.australia-migration.com.au/page/Water_and_land_rescources/243 (2016-02-17)
    Open archived version from archive



  •